martes, enero 23, 2007

España: Información general, organización territorial y datos de población

ESPAÑA (2006)

Se presenta la siguiente información con el propósito de comprender el contexto en que se desenvuelven las Cooperativas de Salud en España.

Nombre oficial: Reino de España
Forma de Gobierno: Monarquía parlamentaria.
Constitución: Promulgada el 29 de diciembre de 1978
Superficie: 506.013 km².
Capital: Madrid
Moneda: Euro (La antigua divisa nacional, la peseta, se reemplazó por el euro el 1-enero-2002. Desde el 1 de enero de 1999, la tasa de cambio se vinculó al valor de la peseta, con un cambio fijo de 166,386 pesetas por euro)
Idioma: Español (oficial), catalán, gallego, vasco (cooficiales)
División administrativa: 17 comunidades autónomas y 2 ciudades autónomas (Ceuta y Melilla).
Otras ciudades: Barcelona, Sevilla, Valencia, Zaragoza, Málaga, Bilbao.
Fiesta nacional: 12 de Octubre, Fecha del Descubrimiento de América y festividad de la Virgen del Pilar, patrona de EspañaHabitantes: 44.108.530 habitantes. (referida a 1 de enero de 2005)
La densidad de población es de 87,2 hab/km².
Alrededor del 77% de la población es urbana.

Organización Territorial

España es una nación integrada por nacionalidades y regiones, organizadas territorialmente en 17 comunidades autónomas y 2 ciudades autónomas, que tienen un amplio nivel de autonomía, poderes legislativos, presupuestarios, administrativos y ejecutivos en las competencias exclusivas que el Estado les garantiza a través de la Constitución y de cada Estatuto de autonomía.

Las comunidades autónomas son: Andalucía, Aragón, Principado de Asturias, Islas Baleares, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y León, Cataluña (Catalunya), Extremadura, Galicia (Galiza), Comunidad de Madrid, Región de Murcia, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, La Rioja, Comunidad Valenciana (Comunitat Valenciana), País Vasco (Euskadi). Las 2 ciudades autónomas son: Ceuta y Melilla.

Las Comunidades con más de 2 millones de habitantes en su orden son (estimaciones a 1 de enero de 2005) Andalucía (7.849.799), seguida de Cataluña (6.995.2060, Madrid (5.964.143), la Comunidad Valenciana (4.692.449), Galicia (2.762.198) y Castilla & León (2.510.849). Las ciudades autónomas son las de menor población, Ceuta con 75.276 y Melilla con 65.488.

Cada comunidad autónoma se subdivide en una o varias provincias, haciendo un total de 50; tanto las comunidades, como las provincias, tienen ciudades capitales propias. Las principales ciudades en cuanto número de habitantes (datos a enero de 2005)son: Madrid con 3.155.359 hab., Capital del Reino y de la Comunidad del mismo nombre; Barcelona con 1.593.075 hab, capital de la provincia del mismo nombre y de la comunidad de Cataluña; Valencia con 796.549 hab., capital de la provincia y de la comunidad del mismo nombre; Sevilla con 704.154 hab., capital de la provincia del mismo nombre y de la comunidad de Andalucía; Bilbao con 353.173 hab., capital de la provincia de Vizcaya en el País Vasco. Otras ciudades importantes son Zaragoza (647.373), Málaga (558.287), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (378.628), Murcia (409.810), Valladolid (321.001), Palma de Mallorca (375.773), Córdoba (321.164), Vigo (293.725), Alicante (319.380), Gijón (273.931), l'Hospitalet de Llobregat (252.884), La Coruña (243.349), Granada (236.982), Vitoria-Gasteiz (226.490), Badalona (218.553).

Las principales industrias están en los textiles y confección (incluido el calzado), alimentos y bebidas, metales y metal manufacturado, productos químicos, industria naval, automóviles, maquinaria y turismo; las zonas más industriales en el pasado y la actualidad son: Comunidad de Madrid, Cataluña, País Vasco y la Comunidad Valenciana, aunque al día de hoy el sector de los Servicios con un aporte al PIB del 68% ha desplazado al de la industria, esta sigue representando el 28,5% del PIB. En el sector Agropecuari, con un aporte al PIB del 3,5% se destaca la producción de grano, vegetales, olivas, uvas de vino, remolacha, cítricos; carne de vaca, cerdo, aves de corral, productos lácteos; pescado. Los trabajadores están distribuidos así (2005): servicios 65,01%, industria 17,2%, construcción 12,5%, agricultura 5,29% ; la Tasa de desempleo a 2005 era de 9,16%.

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